Elements of understanding of operative art
” Every effect has a cause, all intelligent effect has an intelligent cause, the power of the cause is due to the magnitude of the effect. “
Operational art promotes unified action by facilitating the integration of other agencies and multinational partners toward achieving the national strategic end state..
Without operational art, campaigns and operations would be a set of disconnected engagements, relative attrition left as the primary, if not unique, measure for success or failure..
Operational design primarily is an intellectual process based on the creative vision, experience, intuition, and judgment of commanders and planners. The result of this process should be a framework for the joint operation that conceptually links ends, ways, and means across the levels of war. For that purpose, the elements of operational design comprise a tool to help commanders and planners visualize what the joint operation should look like and to shape the commander’s intent.
During execution, commanders and planners continue to consider design elements and adjust both current operations and future plans to capitalize on tactical and operational successes as the joint operation unfolds. Operational design elements can be used selectively in any joint operation. However, their application is broadest in the context of a joint campaign, so this chapter will use the campaign to provide context for a discussion of these elements.
Among the many considerations, operational art requires commanders to answer the following questions:
- What objectives, when achieved, attain the desired national strategic end state? (Ends)
- What effects, when created, support achievement of objectives? (Conditions)
- What sequence of actions is most likely to create those effects? (Ways)
- What resources of the joint force are required to accomplish that sequence of actions? (Means)
- What is the likely cost or risk to the joint force in performing that sequence of actions?
Old principle of knowing your enemy, surprise and adaptability (agility) remain instrumental.
Too much data can lead to information overload and decision paralysis, analysis can help sort out the wheat from chaff.
Proper analysis is instrumental in gaining a thorough understanding of the engagement space.
Applying Operational Art: challenges and frictions
Measures of Effectiveness (MoE).
Measures of Performance (MoP)
Planning in close collaboration with strategic level.
Focus on Mission Command.
Joint Operational Planning
The engagement space encompasses the air, land, sea, space, and associated adversary, friendly, and neutral systems (political, military, economic, social, informational, infrastructure [PMESII], legal, and others), which are relevant to the crisis.
global approach to crises
Operational and strategic teaching
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